First photo in the Batik Statement Photo Booth with
Lara of Laras Bags, Sabine (me), Romée & Myrthe of Guave,
Marlisa of Taman Indonesia and right Gandamira.
For all Wastra Weekend-Batik Statements click here
On 24 & 25 February 2018 me & Marlisa Wareman organised our first Wastra Weekend. We were already talking and thinking many years about how we could share our love for Indonesian textiles, and Batik in particular. When last year the tropical greenhouse opened at Animal park Taman Indonesia, of which Marlisa is the owner, the perfect place was created to organise an event all about Indonesian textiles, no matter what the weather would be like.
Me & Marlisa with the Batik I selected from her
during my second journey to Batik in 2016
For our first Wastra Weekend we choose the not so busy February month. This edition we made a little cinema to show my short film 'The journey to Batik- Tari Batik' with 3 other textile-films; the documentary 'Batik, our love story' from 2012 by Nia Dinata, 'Rangsa Ni Tonun' about Batak textiles by Sandra Niessen & MJA Nashir and 'Ingkerr anyent-antey' about Utopia Batik from Australia. In the greenhouse we made 3 exhibitions, one of my Batik collection, one of Marlisa's collection of Mentawai & Papua accessories and one of clothing from almost every Indonesian Island.
The exhibition of my Batiks started with this one by Ibu Maryati
Batik with 'Ghosts & Coffee' design by Mak Si'Um from Batang
Overview of my collection
On every Batik piece were photos of the makers and the creation process,
on this Batik the actual canting and dying of this cloth
It was amazing to use the tropical greenhouse as an exhibition space and to finally show off the beautiful Batiks I have been collecting since 2009. I also, for the first time, showed the Pagi-sore Batik made after my design.
During the weekend I gave tours through the exhibition sharing more about the Batiks on display; where they were from, who made them and some interesting details about them. It was also wonderful that my film was being shown throughout the day, so people could see most of the actual makers of the Batiks and the their Batiks on the same day!
Guided tour through my collection by me
Wastra Consultation Table
for questions on your own brought textiles or to learn more about Batik
Next to the tours, I had a Wastra Consultation Table ("Wastra Spreekuur") were people could come with their own textiles for more information, browse through books, learn about natural dyes and other materials used to make Batiks and of course ask questions. Five people actually brought some textiles with them, Ikat & Batiks, and I got many questions. It was fun to have this spot, because people also came to me with questions on the films they just saw or after the tour I had given.
My Wastra Consultation was in the other part of the greenhouse which we named the Batik square ("Batikplein") for this weekend. On the Batik square we made a Pasar, market, were people could shop all kind of amazing items made from Indonesian textiles. We had a stall by Lara with her Laras Bags made from Ikat from Flores and Batik from Java, Guave with their sustainable brand using also Batik from Java. Gandamira sold all kinds of batik-things on Saturday and Made by Ayo shared her natural dye Batik bags & clutches on Sunday. From all of them you can still get some items at the toko of Taman Indonesia!
Searching for some examples of Calligraphy Batiks, I came across this piece in the online collection of the Textile Research Center. A Summer apron from former Dutch island Marken, in Dutch "zomerboezeltje", made from what appeared to be Calligraphy Batik. What a remarkable combination! So when Modemuze asked me to write an article for their FashionClash Festival collaboration blogpost-series, this apron seemed to be the perfect match, or clash, to write about. .
Batik is a resist dyeing techniek in which hot wax is used to create patterns on fabric. Calligraphy Batik, or Besurek Batik, is a style or type of Batik within the Indonesian tradition. These Batiks, often blue with white patterns, are full of signs recognizable as Arabic or Islamic Calligraphy. They were made on Java (in cities like Cirebon and Demak) and intended for the Sumatran market. On Sumatra Islam was introduced in the 11th century. The style of the calligraphy used on Besurek Batik looks a lot like calligraphy from the Ottoman Empire (1299-1922), now Turkey, and it is plausible that the texts on Calligraphy Batiks were copied from these kinds of handwritten calligraphy.
Calligraphy Batiks are seen as talismans and give protection to the wearer. In most museum collections you'll find Besurek Batiks in the size of a headscarf. These headscarfs were probably worn during prayers and rituals. There are also Calligraphy Batiks known in other sizes like sarongs, banners or even jackets with on it the soerat al-ihklaas – a verse from the Koran which would give the wearer protection. Besurek Batik in sarong size weren't meant to be worn as such, they were used as shrouds or to wrap around important things like a Koran.
On old Besurek Batiks the texts are readable or recognizable as the Arabic saying Bismillah or as other prayers. Sometimes texts are styled into the shape of an animal or flower. A lion stands for Ali, a bird for Allah and Mohammed is depicted as a horse. This form of zoomorphic calligraphy or zoomorphism is a way of depicting live animals without them being directly recognizable as such. The Koran disallows idolisation: within the Islamic Art its quite common to not depict humans or animals.
Christian grapes and Arabic Batik motifs
Back to the apron from the Textile Research Centre (TRC) collection, because: How does Arabic Calligraphy end up on an apron worn as part of the traditional wear on Marken?
The apron, called 'boezel' in Dutch, is a typical example of wear commonly used on former island Marken before the Second World War.  Children had within this traditional wear their own 'fashion'. Boys would wear girls clothing, including this type of apron as long as they "went in the skirt" (“in de rokkies gingen” in Dutch)
Between the age 5 and 7 boys started wearing pants. The age depends on achieved nighttime dryness of the children. Girls would wear red and white chequered aprons, while boys would wear dark blue aprons with a white pattern. The 'boezels' of the boys in museum collections often have a bunch of grapes om them. I found this motif also on other clothing items from Marken and even as curtains for a bedstead.
A bunch of grapes has many meanings, among them fertility, but in this case it is more likely to be linked to Christianity. A bunch of grapes can be a symbol of the Last Supper and the blood of Christ, similar to the sacramental wine.
The population of Marken is mainly Protestant and this is expressed through their traditional wear in different ways. Not only the grapes, also in other parts of their clothing: they change it on Sunday and to go to church, for different celebrations or stages of mourning.
Between Pentecost (May-June) and St. Martin's Day (11 November) the Summer apron is being worn. These blue with white aprons for boys are in all kinds of grape-motifs. Later it seems all kinds of blue with white motif fabrics were welcome to be turned into Summer aprons. I found one with a chequered motif, one with a very fine floral motif and a couple with Batik-like motifs  and of course the one with Arabic Calligraphy.
Starting left corner clockwise:
apron with herons (TRC 2016.0448f);
apron with Calligraphy Batik-motif (TRC 2009.0048);
insides of sleeves (TRC 2010.0463a-b);
apron with Vlisco-motif of Star of David (TRC 2016.0720)
Imitation and original
I visited the TRC in Leiden to see the Calligraphy Batik-apron and other pieces from their collection. The TRC has an interesthing textile collection with all kinds of techniques and traditional wears. The requested items were sorted from the depot and were put neatly on a board covered with fabric. I was free to take photos and to touch them!
To my surprise the apron turned out not to be a Batik after all. It is an imitation Batik. Another apron I requested also turned out to be a imitation Batik. I recognized the motif of a Vlisco Wax Print I have at home. A Star of David is surrounded by leaves with a craquelé effect on the background.
So the Calligraphy Batik from the TRC is a copy of a copy of a copy: first handwritten writings or calligraphy from the Ottoman Empire, then an Indonesian Batik and then an imitation Batik or in other words Wax Print.
Detail of apron from the TRC collection
When Batiks are copied to make a pattern for a Wax Print, the pattern changes a little and become less readable. In the case of the Calligraphy Batik it would have been interesting if it still was readable. And if I could link it to an actual text or prayer which would tell us more about the use within the Islamic belief. I also thought if I could trace it back to the original Batik on which this design was based, I could figure out when and how it got on Marken. I found an original Batik before on which Vlisco based a Wax Print, so I started searching.
I actually found the original Batik in an online catalog, image above. The pattern is clearly the same, even the mirrored calligraphy placed in a triangle. I assumed the mirroring was a printing error, or a design solution to make a repeating pattern, but it is actually already in the original Batik.
I haven't gotten extra information yet on this Batik, I will definitely keep on searching. The story isn't told completely yet, but what a story it already is. This apron takes us on a journey from the Ottoman Empire, to Indonesian Sumatra, through the Vlisco factory in Helmond to the former island Marken.
Two religions onto one apron came together in an unusual way. Is it a clash or a match, who knows?
For more: See the original post on Modemuze for more photos www.modemuze.nl Check out the project ‘Fake Calligraphy’ by Ada van Hoorebeke and Maartje Fliervoet in collaboration with Manoeuvre in Gent (Belgium), show at WIELS in Brussel. Read also previous blogpost ‘Where Batik Belongs’ on The journey to Batik about artist Ada van Hoorebeke
Notes  This blogpost was written as part of the series 'Fashion My Religion!' in collaboration with FASHIONCLASH Festival  Nowadays Besurek Batiks are made on Sumatra in Palembang and Jambi  Find more examples of Calligraphy Batiks in the collection of Stichting Nationaal Museum van Wereldculturen en het Wereldmuseum with search words ‘Kalligrafie Batik’.  More on the jacket online https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11840/169561. Believed is that this and other similar jackets were worn by warriors, or against the Dutch on Sumatra during the Aceh War (1873–1914), or when Indonesia became independent.  Chapter 8 ‘Islamic talisman, the calligraphy batiks’ by Fiona Kerlogue in the book 'Batik, Drawn in Wax'.  ‘Turn Of A Century’ on this blog with nice examples of Islamic influence on Batik. The heads of the people on the batik are turned into flowers.  For more on the traditional wear of Marken, check out the second episode of Community Dressing on YouTube.  From the book ‘Marken’ by Dr. P.J. Kostelijk and B. De Kock.  Examples in the online collection of Modemuze with search word ‘boezel’.  Apron, collection Zuiderzeemuseum, objectnr 021828. Apron for boy, collection Zuiderzeemuseum, objectnr 012284. Apron, collection Zuiderzeemuseum, objectnr 012285. Apron, collection Textile Research Centre, objectnr TRC 2016.0720.  My previous Modemuze post ‘Batik ‘Tiga Negeri’ & de Java Print ‘Good Living’ in Dutch, on my blog 'Good Life II' in English.
With special thanks to Textile Research Center & artist Ada van Hoorebeke